Shandong Deed Precision Machine Tool Co., Ltd.
Shandong Deed Precision Machine Tool Co., Ltd.

Characteristics and Types of CNC Milling Machine Cutters

CNC milling machines have many types of tools to accommodate the high-speed, high-efficiency, and high-automation features of CNC machines. The tools are moving towards standardization, generalization, and modularization, primarily divided into two categories: milling tools and hole processing tools.

To meet the efficient and special milling requirements, various special-purpose tools have been developed in CNC milling machine China.

Structural forms of CNC milling machine cutter toolholders

The structural forms of CNC milling machine cutter toolholders are divided into modular and integral types. The modular tool system is an advanced tool system in which each tool can be assembled into various series of modules. Different assembly methods can be used for different parts and machines to obtain multiple series of toolholders, improving the adaptability and utilization rate of the toolholder.

The integral toolholder clamping tool's working part is integral with the positioning part installed on the machine. This toolholder has a poorer ability to adapt to changes in the machine and parts. To cope with the changes in parts and machines, users must stock various specifications of toolholders, resulting in a lower utilization rate for the toolholder.

The CNC milling machine cutter toolholder is fitted with a 7:24 taper and a corresponding type of pull stud to combine with the machine's spindle. The taper has the characteristics of non-self-locking and easy tool change. Commonly used toolholder specifications are 40, 45, and 50.

To improve processing efficiency, efficient tools and toolholders should be selected as much as possible. The use of high-strength milling chucks with high clamping accuracy can be used to clamp straight shank cutting tools. The card spring has small deformation during self-clamping, good self-locking properties, and strong clamping force that can be used for high-strength milling processing. It can also be used for high-precision milling and hole processing and can be used to clamp hole-type cutting tools through the connecting rod.

The use of spring clamp toolholders with card springs with elastic deformation of 1mm mainly clamp small-scale milling cutters such as drills, milling cutters, reamers, and taps. The modular tool system is widely used due to its high positioning accuracy, convenient disassembly and connection, good connection rigidity, and excellent vibration resistance, consisting of a toolholder, intermediate connector rod, and working head.

The use of double-edge boring tools with thick holes can improve processing efficiency and reduce cutting vibration. For typical workpieces with large quantities and complex processing, composite tools should be used as much as possible. Although composite tools and toolholders are relatively expensive, using composite tools for processing on CNC machines can concentrate the process, combine multiple processes into one, and be completed by one tool, which can reduce processing time and tool change times, significantly improving production efficiency.

Classification of CNC milling machine tools

There are many methods for classifying CNC milling machine tools. According to the tool structure, they can be divided into:

  • Integral type;

  • Inlay type, which uses welding or machine clamp connection, machine clamp connection can be divided into two types: convertible and non-convertible;

  • Special types, such as composite tools and shock-absorbing tools.

According to the material used to manufacture the tools, they can be divided into:

  • High-speed steel tools;

  • Hard alloy tools: According to the international standard ISO classification, all grades are divided into six categories marked with colors and represented by letters P, M, K, N, S, and H.

P is used for processing steel parts with long chips; M is used for processing stainless steel parts; K is used for processing cast iron parts with short chips; N is used for processing non-ferrous materials with short chips; S is used for processing difficult-to-machine materials; H is used for processing hard materials. 

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Coated hard alloy cutting tools are divided into chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) types. Diamond cutting tools, ceramic blade materials such as silicon nitride ceramics Si3N4, and cubic boron nitride CBN.

From the cutting process, they can be divided into milling cutter tools (face milling cutters, end mills, ball nose cutters, conical milling cutters) and hole processing tools (twist drills, reamers, boring cutters, taps, etc.).

To meet the requirements of CNC machines for durable, easy-to-adjust, stable, and replaceable tools, machine clamp convertible tools are widely used, accounting for 40%-50% of the entire CNC tool industry, and metal cutting accounts for 80% to 90% of the total number of tools.