From an overall perspective, the main components of the CNC machining center consist of:
They are the basic structure of the machining center, consisting of bed, column, and worktable, etc. They mainly bear the static load of the machining center and the cutting load generated during the machining process, so they must have sufficient rigidity. These large parts from a professional cnc machining center factory can be cast iron or welded steel structures, and they are the largest parts in volume and weight in the machining center.
Consisting of spindle box, spindle motor, spindle, and spindle bearings, etc. The start, stop, and speed changing of the spindle are all controlled by the numerical control system, and it participates in the cutting motion through the tool installed on the spindle. It is the power output component of the cutting process. It is the key component of the machining center, and it determines the processing accuracy and stability of CNC machining centers.
The numerical control part of the cnc industrial machine consists of CNC device, programmable logic controller PLC, servo drive device, and operating panel, etc.
Consisting of tool magazine, robot, driving mechanism, etc. When tool changing is needed, the numerical control system issues instructions, and the robot (or other means) takes the tool from the tool magazine and installs it into the spindle hole. It solves the task of automatic storage, selection, handling, and exchanging of tools between processes in multi-process continuous machining after the workpiece is clamped once.
The tool magazine is a device that stores all the tools used in the machining process. The tool magazine can be disc or chain type, with a capacity from several to several hundred. The structure of the tool arm also has various forms such as single-arm, double-arm, etc., depending on the relative position and structure of the tool magazine and spindle. Some CNC machining centers do not use tool arms but directly use the movement of the spindle box or tool magazine to realize tool changing.
It includes lubrication, cooling, chip removal, protection, hydraulic, pneumatic, and detection systems, etc. Although these devices do not directly participate in cutting motion, they play a guarantee role in the machining efficiency, accuracy, and reliability of the machining center, so they are also an indispensable part of the machining center.
Some machining centers use multiple automatic exchange worktables to reserve workpieces for further unmanned or further reduce non-processing time. When a workpiece is installed on the worktable for machining, one or several worktables can also load and unload other parts. When the machining of a workpiece on a worktable is finished, the worktable is automatically exchanged to machine a new part, which can reduce auxiliary time and improve machining efficiency.