Shandong Deed Precision Machine Tool Co., Ltd.
Shandong Deed Precision Machine Tool Co., Ltd.

A Brief Discussion on the CNC Machine Structure

There are numerous types of numerical control (NC) systems in the world today, each differing in form and having unique structural characteristics. These structural features stem from the fundamental demands and engineering design concepts of the initial system designs. For instance, point-to-point control systems and continuous path control systems have markedly different requirements. Likewise, T systems and M systems also exhibit significant diversity, the former suited for machining rotating parts and the latter for non-rotating, irregularly shaped parts.


Brief introduction to CNC machine


As one of the most widely used NC machine tools today, CNC machines are primarily used for machining rotating parts such as shafts and disc sleeves. They can automatically perform cutting processes such as internal and external cylindrical surfaces, conical surfaces, arcs, threads, and also operations such as grooving, drilling, expanding, and reaming through program control. In recent years, the development of NC turning centers and NC turn-milling centers has allowed for more machining operations to be completed in a single setup, thereby improving machining quality and production efficiency. This makes them particularly suitable for machining complex-shaped rotating parts.


CNC machine structure


The CNC machine consists of a bed, spindle box, tool post feed system, cooling and lubrication system, and NC system. Unlike conventional lathes, the feed system of a CNC lathe is fundamentally different; it lacks the traditional feed box, slide carriage, and gear rack, and instead uses a servo motor or stepper motor to directly drive the saddle and tool via a ball screw, enabling feed motion. The NC system is composed of an NC unit, input/output modules, and an operation panel.


Mechanical Structure of CNC Machine


From a mechanical perspective, the structure of a CNC lathe hasn't completely deviated from that of a conventional lathe, still consisting of components like the bed, spindle box, tool post feed system, and hydraulic, cooling, and lubrication systems. However, the feed system of a CNC lathe is fundamentally different from that of a conventional lathe; it eliminates the traditional feed box, slide carriage, and gear rack, using a servo motor to directly drive the saddle and tool via a ball screw, thereby greatly simplifying the structure of the feed system. To enable CNC control, a CNC lathe also requires CNC device electrical control and a CRT operation panel.


Spindle Box


The spindle box configuration on a CNC lathe. The rotation of the spindle servo motor is transmitted through a belt pulley to the speed change gears inside the spindle box, thus determining the specific spindle speed. Clamping chucks are installed at the front and rear of the spindle box for mounting workpieces.


Spindle Servo Motor


Spindle servo motors can be either AC or DC. DC servo motors are highly reliable and easy to control over a wide range of torque and speed, thus they are widely used. However, in recent years, small, high-speed, and more reliable AC servo motors have increasingly been utilized as a result of advancements in motor control technology.


Clamping Device


This device controls the opening/closing of the chuck jaws via hydraulic automatic control.


Reciprocating Slide


A tool post is mounted on the reciprocating slide, allowing the tool to achieve directional positioning and movement along the spindle, thus completing the longitudinal cutting in conjunction with the Z-axis servo motor.


Tool Post


This device can fix and index tools, positioning them in the vertical direction to the spindle and working with the Z-axis servo motor to complete transverse cutting. The structure of the tool post is shown.


Control Panel


The control panel includes a CRT operation panel (for executing NC data input/output) and a machine tool operation panel (for executing manual operation of the machine tool).


NC System


The NC system of a CNC lathe consists of a CNC device, input/output equipment, a programmable logic controller (PLC), spindle drive device, feed drive device, and position measurement system.


The CNC system controls the spindle speed, feed rate of each axis, and other auxiliary functions of the NC lathe through the CNC device.


Understanding the structure of CNC machines is crucial for anyone involved in machining and manufacturing. DEED is committed to quality and innovation, exemplifying the pinnacle of what modern CNC lathes should offer. With its advanced control systems, it integrates precision, speed, and reliability, making complex machining tasks not only feasible but highly efficient. As we continue to push the boundaries of technology, brands like DEED are undoubtedly leading the future of machining.